PXRD2D: In situ and operando experiments using an area detector
The PXRD2D instrument has been designed to be very flexible in order to accommodate a wealth of sample environments. The Instrument is built on a stable granite stage that holds all equipment except the area detector. The main sample stage is a Symetrie Breva ST hexapod with a capacity of 200 kg and a mechanical repeatability of ±0.5 µm (Specifications of the hexapod can be found here: https://symetrie.fr/en/hexapods/breva/). Various positioners and sample environments can be placed on top of the hexapod using a custom made kinematic mount. For further details see the Sample Environment page.
The area detector, DECTRIS PILATUS3 X 2M CdTe, is placed downstream of the granite block and hexapod. It is placed on a 500 mm long translation stage oriented along the beam direction. The direct beam position is close to the bottom edge and nearly centered in the horizontal direction. It is currently not possible to translate the detector up/down nor inboard/outboard. A new detector gantry will be installed along with the imaging instrument. This gantry will allow full XYZ motion in addition to a 45 degree tilt of the detector towards the beam.
An energy resolved silicon drift detector, RAYSPEC SiriusSDD, fluorescence detector is mounted on the outboard side of the instrument in a backscattering geometry. The signal is subsequently processed in a FalconX pulse processor. The angle and position of the detector is adjusted manually but the exact sample to detector distance can be adjusted using the translation stage.
Various equipment is mounted on the instrument, listed here from upstream towards downstream:
- Guard slits: Slits for removing stray scattering. Should not be used to define the beam size
- Ion chamber
- Brass mask: Fixed Ø4 mm hole for removing stray scattering (mounted on microscope holder)
- Microscope camera: microscope mounted above the beam at a 45 degree angle
- Collimator/pinhole: Collimator with exchangeable pinholes. Motorized XY translation, manual RxRy rotations
- PN diode: A compact PN diode can be inserted (pneumatic) between sample and beam stop to facilitate alignment of e.g. slits and samples.
- Beam stop: Tungsten beam stops in various diameters mounted on carbon fiber rods are available. Motorized motion along XYZ.
All equipment is mounted on X95 rails and can quickly be reconfigured if needed.