The ForMAX beamline will be equipped with two horizontally deflecting monochromators: either a “high-resolution” double crystal monochromator (hDCM) or a “high-flux” double multilayer monochromator (hDMM).The former is the standard monochromator for SWAXS and the latter for full-field microtomography. The beam will pass onto dynamically bendable mirrors (VFM and HFM) in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry, providing harmonic rejection and the possibility for independent focusing/collimation in vertical and horizontal directions. The optics hutch will also include four diagnostics units.

The hDCM and diagnostics units were delivered by FMB Oxford, the hDMM by Axilon, and the focusing mirrors by IRELEC.

Secondary optics based on compound refractive lenses (CRLs) will be installed in the experimental station, providing the possibility of further increasing or decreasing the beam size.


X-ray sourceIn-vacuum undulator (IVU), 3 m magnetic length, 17 mm period, 166 periods, 4 mm minimal magnetic gap.
Energy range8-25 keV, using 3rd-13th harmonics of the IVU.
Crystal monochromator (DCM)Cryo-cooled horizontally deflecting double-bounce Si(111) crystal monochromator with fixed exit. Positioned 27 m downstream of the source.
Multilayer monochromator (DMM)Water-cooled horizontally deflecting double-bounce multilayer monochromator with fixed exit. W/B4C and Ru/B4C coatings. Positioned at 25 m.
Focusing mirrorsVertically (VFM; 30.2 m from source) and horizontally (HFM;31 m from source) bouncing mirrors in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry. Dynamically bendable flat mirrors, allowing focusing the beam at various planes down to sample position, collimating the beam, or no focusing, independently in vertical and horizontal directions (bending radii 5-100 km). Si, Rh, and Pt stripes for harmonic rejection.
Sample position42 m downstream of the source.
Flux at sample position1013 - 10 14 ph/s using the hDCM, 1014 - 10 15 ph/s using the hDMM.
Beam size at sample position (FWHM; vertical x horizontal)Variable between 1x1.5 mm2 and 10x40 µm 2. Beam sizes up to 5x5 mm2 or down to 1x2 µm 2 possible using compound refractive lenses, to be installed in the experimental station.